And here we go. Elon Musk of Telsa and Space-X is thought to be somewhat of a visionary. In California, the state has financed and is building the Hyperloop train system. Is this train running in a near vacuum visionary, or is it a rehash of an old idea? In London, England there was an experimental railway system called the "Atmospheric Railway." The cars were inside of an evacuated tube and powered by pistons at each end. One piston would push air into the tube while at the other end a piston would draw the air out. This system created a pressurized system in which the air pushed the car down the rails. As we see, running trains through tubes is hardly a new idea, or unique to the Hyperloop train. There were a handful of "Atmospheric Railway" systems built in the mid nineteenth century. The idea of an atmospherically powered train can be traced to a British inventor named George Medhrst in 1812. https://books.google.com/books?id=07o7IbahCsQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=railway+medhurst&hl=en&sa=X&ei=iKQLUpOEMYWb2wWv_YDIBg&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=railway medhurst&f=false In 1860 Alfred Ely Beach in New York City, USA proposed a number of variations to the Atmospheric Railway including operating it in an airtight tube. https://books.google.com/books?id=GqiI3x70fCoC&printsec=frontcover&dq=beach+pneumatic+railway&hl=en&sa=X&ei=2KQLUuTGHMP-2gXYPA&ved=0CFcQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=beach pneumatic railway&f=false Additionally Beach built a prototype of the pneumatic railway in 1869 at the American Institute Fair in New York City. Visitors to the fair were able to ride in a 107 foot section of the railway. In late 1868, Beach began secret construction of his railway 20 feet below Broadway. Crowds gathered to watch the excavation of earth from the basement of the department store that Beach had Commandeered. In 1870 Beach opened his creation to the public and invited visitors to take a ride. Information drawn from: https://www.bloomberg.com/view/articles/2013-08-14/new-york-had-a-hyperloop-first-elon-musk Electric cars are all the rage by some people. But just how new is the electric car? Many would be surprised to learn that the electric car predates the gasoline and diesel cars. The first know electric car was built in 1937 1837 by a chemist with the name of Robert Davidson who lived in Aberdeen, Scotland. By way of contrast the first gasoline automobile was developed in 1879 by Karl Benz, though the date is most frequently given as 1886. In 1807 Francois Isaac de Rivaz designed the first Hydrogen powered car. With these histories, why are people like Elon Musk considered visionary. They are simply rehashing old ideas and wrapping them in new and shiny paper. Meanwhile, the technology has existed for a century or more.