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Search engine optimization of algorithyms evaluation of rank

Discussion in 'Black Hat SEO' started by BullMastiff, May 19, 2010.

?

Does your current websites follow the Algorithym evaluation?

Poll closed May 19, 2011.
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  2. No:

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  1. BullMastiff

    BullMastiff Newbie

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    Evaluating relevance in results and ranking is one of the hardest tasks in Information Retrieval. The basic problem is that it's easiest to search on words, but words often fail to express the "aboutness" of a search query or document. There are a number of approaches that add "weight" to results rankings: they use the data and the document structure as much as possible to decide which of the pages, which are otherwise equivalent, should be sorted higher.

    It's my opinion that any niche websites the foundation starts with correct format of proper feed readability. You can use all the automated tools to promote but without the proper preparation and awareness of those task of evaluating relevance there will be a greater chance of not obtaining your full potential naturally.

    I hope you will enjoy this presentation, sit back and open a cold beverage of your choice! :D

    Your going to need it by the time you read to the bottom of this thread!!! :cool:

    Elements of Search Engine Marketing


    • Search Engines
    • Find pages
    • Respond to user demand
    • Provide information
    • Avoid spam
    • Web Sites
    • Products or Information
    • Optimizing for Search Results Ranking
    • Search Advertising
    • Conversion


    Search Process

    • Search engine robot discovers web pages
    • Indexer stores words for lookup, and page info
    • User types a search query
    • Search engine retrieves pages containing words that match
    • Search engine sorts the pages by relevance
    • Relevance is tricky -- like truth, beauty and pornography
    • Always depends on the situation
    • Especially hard for very short queries
    • Browser displays the search results page (SRP)



    Robots and Gathering
    • Robots / Spiders / Crawlers
    • Follow links to find web pages
    • Ad-hoc movement , not pre-directed
    • Obey "robots.txt" and "robots" meta tags
    • Prefer reasonable HTML links
    • Simple <a href links are best
    • Problems with Java, JavaScript and complex links
    • Serious problems with form interfaces
    • Create a list of links to all "pages" in database
    • Revisiting known pages
    • Check for changes
    • Problems with date tracking


    Storing Text in Index
    • Every word on the page
    • Includes image "ALT" tags
    • File names and URL path folder names
    • "Anchor text" - text of links to the page
    • It has to be text!
    • Pictures of text will not do, indexers are "blind"
    • Hyphenated and formatted text (PDF, Word) can be weird
    • Diacritics and non-Roman text: Unicode is best
    • Stores every word individually
    • inverted index - alphabetical by word
    • Link to the source document
    • Context info: tag name, position in page

    note: about stopwords
    Storing Document Information
    • Whole documents provide context for search
    • Document properties
    • URL
    • Title tag or property
    • MIME type or extension
    • Size
    • Date
    • Internal metadata
    • External metadata (category, department)
    • Full text (sometimes)
    • Show match term in context
    • Display PDF and other formats in HTML

    Search and Retrieval
    • User types a query in a search box
    • Search engine processes the query
    • "Tokenize" - break into words (hard in CJK)
    • Recognize operators (AND, OR, NOT, +, =, "")
    • Queries the index for each term
    • Finds all documents which contain at least one of the words
    • Combines retrieved document lists
    • For any word match: adds all lists together
    • For all words match: only keeps documents with all words
    • For phrase match: only keeps documents with words in order
    • For not match: removes documents with the unwanted words
    • More complex operations available too

    Search and Retrieval Diagram
    >
    <ul>
    <li>Search Engines
    <ul>
    <li>Find pages </li>
    <li>Respond to user demand </li>
    <li>Provide information</li>
    <li>Avoid spam </li>
    </ul>
    </li>
    <li>Web Sites
    <ul>
    <li>Products or Information </li>
    <li>Optimizing for Search Results Ranking</li>
    <li>Search Advertising</li>
    <li>Conversion</li>
    </ul>


    <h1>Search Processes</h1>
    <li>Search engine robot discovers web pages</li>
    <li>Indexer stores words for lookup, and page info </li>
    <li>User types a search query</li>
    <li>Search engine <dfn>retrieves</dfn> pages containing words that match</li>
    <li>Search engine sorts the pages by <dfn>relevance</dfn>
    <ul>
    <li>Relevance is tricky -- like truth, beauty and pornography</li>
    <li>Always depends on the situation</li>
    <li>Especially hard for very short queries</li>
    </ul>
    </li>
    <li>Browser displays the search results page (SRP)</li>


    <h1>Robots and Gathering </h1>
    <ul>
    <li>Robots / Spiders / Crawlers </li>
    <ul>
    <li>Follow links to find web pages </li>
    <li>Ad-hoc movement , not pre-directed </li>
    <li>Obey &quot;robots.txt&quot; and &quot;robots&quot; meta tags </li>

    <li>Prefer reasonable HTML links </li>
    <ul>
    <li>Simple &lt;a href links are best </li>
    <li>Problems with Java, JavaScript and complex links</li>
    <li>Serious problems with form interfaces
    <ul>
    <li>Create a list of links to all &quot;pages&quot; in database </li>
    </ul>
    </li>
    </ul>
    <li>Revisiting known pages
    <ul>
    <li>Check for changes </li>
    <li>Problems with date tracking </li>
    </ul>


    <h1>Storing Text in Index </h1>


    <li>Every word on the page
    <ul>
    <li>Includes image &quot;ALT&quot; tags</li>
    <li>File names and URL path folder names </li>
    <li>&quot;Anchor text&quot; - text of links to the page </li>
    </ul>
    </li>
    <li>It <i>has</i> to be text! </li>
    <ul>
    <li>Pictures of text will not do, indexers are &quot;blind&quot; </li>
    <li>Hyphenated and formatted text (PDF, Word) can be weird </li>
    <li>Diacritics and non-Roman text: Unicode is best </li>
    </ul>
    <li>Stores every word individually </li>
    <ul>
    <li><i>inverted index -</i> alphabetical by word </li>
    <li>Link to the source document </li>
    <li>Context info: tag name, position in page </li>
    </ul>
    </ul>
    <!-- end top set of bullets -->

    <h1>Storing Document Information </h1>
    <ul>
    <li>Whole documents provide context for search </li>
    <li>Document properties </li>
    <ul>
    <li>URL</li>
    <li>Title tag or property</li>
    <li>MIME type or extension </li>
    <li>Size</li>
    <li>Date</li>
    <li>Internal metadata</li>
    <li>External metadata (category, department) </li>
    </ul>
    <li>Full text (sometimes) </li>
    <ul>
    <li>Show match term in context </li>
    <li>Display PDF and other formats in HTML </li>
    </ul>
    </ul>
    <!-- end top set of bullets -->


    <h1>Search and Retrieval</h1>
    <ul>
    <li>User types a query in a search box </li>
    <li>Search engine processes the query </li>
    <ul>
    <li>&quot;Tokenize&quot; - break into words (hard in CJK) </li>
    <li>Recognize <i>operators</i> (AND, OR, NOT, +, =, &quot;&quot;) </li>
    </ul>
    <li>Queries the index for each term </li>
    <ul>
    <li>Finds all documents which contain at least one of the words </li>
    </ul>
    <li>Combines retrieved document lists </li>
    <ul>
    <li>For <i>any</i> <i>word</i> match: adds all lists together </li>
    <li>For <i>all words </i>match: only keeps documents with all words</li>
    <li>For <i>phrase</i> match: only keeps documents with words in order</li>
    <li>For <i>not</i> match: removes documents with the unwanted words </li>
    <li>More complex operations available too </li>
    </ul>
    </ul>
    <!-- end top set of bullets -->
    </div>
    <h1>Relevance Ranking </h1>

    <li>Relevance is in the eye of the beholder </li>
    <ul>
    <li>Classic example: search for <i>bank</i> </li>
    </ul>
    <li>Relevance algorithms
    <ul>
    <li>Number of matching terms </li>
    <li>Extra weight for unusual terms </li>
    </ul>
    </li>
    <ul>
    <li>Text of incoming links </li>
    <li>Matching phrases in title, H1 </li>
    <li>thousands of &quot;ties&quot; in relevance algorithms </li>
    </ul>
    <li>Search engines just have to punt </li>
    <ul>
    <li>Show a variety of results </li>
    <li>Show search terms in context</li>
    <li>Try to ignore search spam</li>
    </ul>
    </ul>
    <!-- end top set of bullets -->

    <h1>SRP: Search Results Page </h1>
    <ul>
    <li>Search &quot;header&quot; </li>
    <ul>
    <li>Logo</li>
    <li>Zones </li>
    <li>Search field <i>with query </i></li>
    <li>Number of hits </li>
    <li>Links to advanced &amp; help, other options </li>
    </ul>
    <li>Advertising
    <ul>
    <li>Above, next to, or interspersed with results </li>
    </ul>
    </li>
    <li>Results List </li>
    <ul>
    <li>Results items <i>in relevance order</i> </li>
    <li>Numbered or unnumbered </li>
    <li>May <i>group</i> results from a single site </li>
    </ul>
    </ul>
    <!-- end top set of bullets -->

    <h1>Search Results Items </h1>
    <ul>
    <li>Results items
    <ul>
    <li>Page Title (as a link) </li>
    </ul>
    </li>
    <ul>
    <li>Optional description of page or site </li>
    <li>Text from page, with <i>match terms</i> marked </li>
    <li>URL</li>
    <li>Size, but rarely date </li>
    <li>Links to options - cache, similar items, etc. </li>
    </ul>
    <li>Advertising
    <ul>
    <li>Very similar to results </li>
    <li>Must be very clearly marked </li>
    </ul>
    </li>
    </ul>
    <!-- end top set of bullets -->

    <h1>Site Optimization for Search </h1>
    <ul>
    <li>Content</li>
    <ul>
    <li>Make sure each page is worth finding </li>
    <li>Focus on a s<i>ingle topic, </i>repeat important terms</li>
    <li>Quality of writing helps </li>
    </ul>
    <li><i>Titles are key </i>
    <ul>
    <li>Main chance to identify your page</li>
    <li>Keep it descriptive, clear and relatively short </li>
    </ul>
    </li>
    <li>URLs
    <ul>
    <li>Use descriptive terms in folder and file names </li>
    </ul>
    </li>
    <li>Internal links - at least one link to each page </li>
    <li>Incoming Links </li>
    <ul>
    <li>Links from other sites, directories (Yahoo, Open Directory)</li>
    <li>High <i>Page Rank</i> is nice </li>
    </ul>
    </ul>
    <!-- end top set of bullets -->

    <h1>Robots.txt and Robots tag </h1>
    <ul>
    <li>Simple communication with indexing robots </li>
    <ul>
    <li>&quot;Disallow&quot; only </li>
    <li>Voluntary </li>
    </ul>
    <li>Robots.txt</li>
    <ul>
    <li>File sits in top level of site </li>
    <li>Says not to index certain directories or files </li>
    <li>Can be robot-specific or apply to all </li>
    </ul>
    <li>Robots meta tags </li>
    <ul>
    <li>In page header </li>
    <li>NOINDEX, NOFOLLOW</li>
    <li>Applies to all robots </li>
    </ul>
    </ul>
    <!-- end top set of bullets -->

    <h1>SEO Spam and Scams </h1>
    <ul>
    <li><i><b>DON'T DO THESE THINGS </b></i></li>
    <ul>
    <li>Bad for customers </li>
    <li>Search engines will <i>punish</i> the site </li>
    </ul>
    <li>Fakeout text, repeating keywords </li>
    <ul>
    <li>White on white </li>
    <li>Tiny font, behind a picture </li>
    </ul>
    <li>Gateway pages, client sniffing </li>
    <ul>
    <li>Show the search engine one thing, humans a different thing </li>
    </ul>
    <li>Link farms </li>
    <ul>
    <li>Bunches of sites all pointing towards the site </li>
    <li>Not true popularity</li>
    </ul>
    </ul>
    <!-- end top set of bullets -->


    "Evaluating relevance in results and ranking is one of the hardest tasks in Information Retrieval. The basic problem is that it's easiest to search on words, but words often fail to express the "aboutness" of a search query or document. There are a number of approaches that add "weight" to results rankings: they use the data and the document structure as much as possible to decide which of the pages, which are otherwise equivalent, should be sorted higher."


    Please be patient on reading below because of the type of dynamic content the search engine is looking for. I have an example of French Poetry that translation with (Google) was not as clearly as I would of expected!

    You should be able to see the English version translation following of each section. ( This may be the time to open up a 2nd cold beverage of your choice :D)


    This section is testing these algorithms. For more information on the test suite, see the Search Indexing Test List.

    For our tests, we have a set of pages which contain some miscellaneous text, and some unique terms which are not words and therefore will not bring up any false matches (unless the search engine is performing phonetic or soundex seaching). The special terms are:


    * ztycl
    * dlrowcam
    * hcraessloot

    To test, search using both AND and OR searches to see which pages are considered most relevant to these terms.

    Text Weighting


    * One term match
    o ztycl
    o dlrowcam
    o hcraessloot


    * Two terms match:
    o ztycl and hcraessloot
    o ztycl and dlrowcam
    o dlrowcam and hcraessloot
    * Three terms match
    o once each
    o twice each
    o three times each
    * Three matches, adjusted term frequency
    o ztycl and dlrowcam once, hcraessloot 3 times
    o ztycl and hcraessloot once, dlrowcam 3 times
    o hcraessloot and dlrowcam once, ztycl 3 times
    o ztycl once, hcraessloot and dlrowcam 3 times
    o dlrowcam once, ztycl and hcraessloot 3 times
    o hcraessloot once, ztycl and dlrowcam 3 times
    * Terms as phrases
    o ztycl dlrowcam
    o ztycl hcraessloot
    o hcraessloot dlrowcam
    o ztycl dlrowcam hcraessloot as a phrase
    * Page length, with one instance each of all three terms
    o long page (4,000 characters)
    o medium page (2,000 characters)
    o short page (1,000 characters)



    Page Structure Weighting

    * Words in Title tag
    o all three (not as phrase)
    o all three as phrase
    * Words in META Keywords tag
    o all three (not as phrase)
    o all three as phrase
    * Words in Meta Description tag
    o all three (not as phrase)
    o all three as phrase
    * Words in H1 Tag
    o all three (not as phrase)
    o all three as phrase
    * Words in H2 Tag
    o all three (not as phrase)
    o all three as phrase
    * Words in H3 Tag
    o all three (not as phrase)
    o all three as phrase
    * Words at the top of the page
    o all three (not as phrase)
    o all three as phrase
    * Words at the bottom of the page
    o all three (not as phrase)
    o all three as phrase

    Search Engine Optimization of Algorithms Evaluation of Rank - Number of matches, length of file, position on page, meta tags, title and header tags, etc.


    THE EXAMPLE BELOW FOR A 1 ITEM SEARCH:




    > Search Term Test: Test Page Search dlrowcam ID: RevRank02 <-


    Jòia, Jovent e Amor - (joie, jeunesse, et amour) Voilà les mots principaux des maîtres europèens de la poèsie lyrique , les Troubadours , qui donnérent à la Langue Occitane , ses Lettres de Noblesse . Joia, Jovent e Amor - (joy, youth, and love) is the principal words of the European masters of lyric poetry, the troubadours, who gave the Language Occitane his letters of nobility. Cela n'ètonne personne, que l'enthousiasme que recélent ces mots, nous attirent aujourd'hui encore vers ceux qui ètaient, en fait, des auteurs-compositeurs-interprétes . This will not surprise anyone that the enthusiasm that contain these words, we still attract to those who were, in fact, songwriters, interpreters.


    Un moviment prigond e potent A potent moviment prigond e
    (Un mouvement profond et puissant) (A powerful and profound movement)


    Beaucoup de gens, rÍvent des troubadours , mais leurs connaissances sont nèbuleuses . Many people, rivet the troubadours, but their knowledge is unclear. On pense gènèralement que c'ètait quelques chanteurs frÍles et ennuyeux, qui allaient de ch'teau en ch'teau, alors qu'en fait, ils ètaient une multitude de crèateurs de Poèsie à Chanter , lettrès et passionnès. It is generally believed that it was some singers FRIL and boring, who went into ch'teau ch'teau, when in fact they were a multitude of creators of poetry to sing, literate and passionate. Pour eux les mots et la musique son indissociables . To them the words and music his inseparable.


    Le plus ancien que nous connaissions est Guilhém de Peitiéus (Guillaume de Poitiers), qui ètait à la fois, Comte de Peitiéus , et Duc d'Aquitania (d'Aquitaine), et plus puissant que le roi de france. The oldest we know of is Peitiéus Guilhem (Guillaume de Poitiers), who was at the time of Peitiéus Earl and Duke of Aquitania (Aquitaine), and more powerful than the king of France. Il vècut à la fin du XIiéme siécle. Aprés lui, pendant deux siécles, une suite somptueuse et nombreuse de plus de 460 trobadors va changer le cours des choses en Europe Occidentale . Tous s'expriment dans une Langue Littèraire riche et innovante , la plus ancienne d'Europe, l'Occitan . He lived at the end of the twelfth century. After him, over two centuries, a large and lavish suite of over 460 trobadors will change the tide in Western Europe. They all speak in a literary language rich and innovative, the most Old Europe, Occitan. Notre Langue Occitane contemporaine, n'en est qu'un reflet amoindri, mÍme si elle donne une bonne idèe de sa richesse expressive. Dante Allighieri et Petrarca (Pètrarque) l'admiraient et l'enviaient. Our contemporary Occitan language, is just one reflection diminished, mime if she gives a good idea of its richness of expression. Allighieri Dante and Petrarca (Petrarch) admired and envied.


    D'originas socialas variadissas Social origins variadissas
    (Des origines sociales varièes) (The social origins miscellaneous use)


    Ce groupe nombreux se rèpartit sur une durèe de huit gènèrations, du XIiéme au XIIIiéme siécle, et est originaire d'une Occitanie large , des Vallèes Occitanes d'Italie a la Catalonha (Catalogne) Espagnole. This large group is spread over a period of eight generations, the twelfth to the XIII century, and comes from a wide Occitan, Occitan Valleys of Italy has Catalonha (Catalonia) Spanish. Autre particularitè les Troubadours sont de tous les milieux sociaux. Another feature of the Troubadours are all social backgrounds. On y trouve des Rois, des Comtes, des Barons, des religieux, des commerçants, ou des artisans. There are Kings, Earls, Barons, clerics, merchants, or craftsmen. Leur idèe novatrice est de remplacer la fidèlitè au seigneur, par la fidèlitè à la Domna (la Dame), la femme idèalisèe et rÍvèe. Cela changera la Civilisation Europèenne profondèment et dècisivement. Their innovative idea is to replace the fidelity to the Lord by being faithful to the Domna (the Lady), the idealized woman and shore. This will change the European civilization deep and decisive.


    D'óbras ricas e plenas On ricas e Obras plenas
    (Des œuvres riches et pleines) (Works rich and full)
    Mais pour en Ítre leur idèe maîtresse , elle ètait loin d'Ítre la seule. But to their itle idea, it was far from the only itle. Grosso-modo, l'œuvre des Troubadours regroupe une douzaine de genres qui vont des Cançons (chansons), prècurseurs des chansons modernes , aux sirventés , sorte de chansons engagèes . Grosso modo, the work of the Troubadours includes a dozen genres ranging from Cançons (songs), the precursor of modern songs, the Sirvent, sort of protest songs. De fait, leurs poèsies concernent des domaines sociaux et personnels divers, et vont de l'Amour à la Politique . In fact, their poetries involve various social and personal areas, and range from love to the Policy.
    Malgrè une totale absence de volontè de les conserver, de la majeure partie des Occitans eux mÍmes, il nous reste plus de 1000 Tróbas (poèsies) et plus de 300 Melodiás (mèlodies), dans des manuscrits, les " Cançoniérs ", quelques uns trés sobres et d'autres trés luxueux . Despite a total lack of willingness to conserve, most of them Occitan mimes, we have over 1000 Troba (poetry) and more than 300 Melodia (melodies), in manuscripts, "Cançoniérs, very few sober and other very luxurious.
    Un de ces prècieux libres fut rèdigè pour le frére du roi LoÌs IX (dit Saint Louis) One of these precious free was written for the king's brother Statutes IX ("Saint Louis)
    Los genres mairals del Trobar Los del genera MAIRAL Trobar
    (Les principaux genres de l'Art poètique) (The main types of poetic art)
    Una enfluença oportuna e prigonda Una enfluença opportunist e prigonda
    (Une influence opportune et profonde) (A timely and profound influence)
    Les Troubadours aparaissent juste aprés la fin des invasions barbares, au moment où la triste vie des ch'teaux forts demande à Ítre amèliorèe par des distractions nouvelles . Troubadours aparaissent just after the end of the barbarian invasions, when the sad life of ch'teaux strong demand for improved itle new distractions. Les Troubadours vont donner le ton à la vie des cours du Moyen Age , et crèent le Biais de Viure (style de vie) raffinè des cours seigneuriales. Ils amenérent au Monde non-religieux , des valeurs lyriques , qui serviront de modéle à l' Europe entiére . Comme ils changeaient souvent de cour, le rayonnement de toute leur œuvre, se rèpandit à travers l'Europe , où ils furent les artisans d'une façon de penser , qui en fit une vèritable communautè de civilisation. The Troubadours will set the tone for life during the Middle Ages, and create the bias Viure (lifestyle), refined, aristocratic classes. They brought in world non-religious, lyrical values, which serve as a model to Europe. As they often switched court, the radiance of all their work, spread across Europe, where they were the architects of a way of thinking, which made it a true community of civilization.


    Search Indexing Test List .

    EXAMPLE BELOW FOR A 2 ITEM SEARCH:

    The content for this page came from CiutatCity site -- please go there for more information on Occitania (a region of southern France also known as Languedoc).


    --> Search Test Terms: hcraessloot in addition to ztycl Search Test Page ID: RevRank04 <-- ->


    Jòia, Jovent e Amor - (joie, jeunesse, et amour) Voilà les mots principaux des maîtres europèens de la poèsie lyrique , les Troubadours , qui donnérent à la Langue Occitane , ses Lettres de Noblesse . Joia, Jovent e Amor - (joy, youth, and love) is the principal words of the European masters of lyric poetry, the troubadours, who gave the Language Occitane his letters of nobility. Cela n'ètonne personne, que l'enthousiasme que recélent ces mots, nous attirent aujourd'hui encore vers ceux qui ètaient, en fait, des auteurs-compositeurs-interprétes . This will not surprise anyone that the enthusiasm that contain these words, we still attract to those who were, in fact, songwriters, interpreters.
    Un moviment prigond e potent A potent moviment prigond e
    (Un mouvement profond et puissant) (A powerful and profound movement)


    Beaucoup de gens, rÍvent des troubadours , mais leurs connaissances sont nèbuleuses . Many people, rivet the troubadours, but their knowledge is unclear. On pense gènèralement que c'ètait quelques chanteurs frÍles et ennuyeux, qui allaient de ch'teau en ch'teau, alors qu'en fait, ils ètaient une multitude de crèateurs de Poèsie à Chanter , lettrès et passionnès. It is generally believed that it was some singers FRIL and boring, who went into ch'teau ch'teau, when in fact they were a multitude of creators of poetry to sing, literate and passionate. Pour eux les mots et la musique son indissociables . To them the words and music his inseparable.


    Le plus ancien que nous connaissions est Guilhém de Peitiéus (Guillaume de Poitiers), qui ètait à la fois, Comte de Peitiéus , et Duc d'Aquitania (d'Aquitaine), et plus puissant que le roi de france. The oldest we know of is Peitiéus Guilhem (Guillaume de Poitiers), who was at the time of Peitiéus Earl and Duke of Aquitania (Aquitaine), and more powerful than the king of France. Il vècut à la fin du XIiéme siécle. Aprés lui, pendant deux siécles, une suite somptueuse et nombreuse de plus de 460 trobadors va changer le cours des choses en Europe Occidentale . Tous s'expriment dans une Langue Littèraire riche et innovante , la plus ancienne d'Europe, l'Occitan . He lived at the end of the twelfth century. After him, over two centuries, a large and lavish suite of over 460 trobadors will change the tide in Western Europe. They all speak in a literary language rich and innovative, the most Old Europe, Occitan. Notre Langue Occitane contemporaine, n'en est qu'un reflet amoindri, mÍme si elle donne une bonne idèe de sa richesse expressive. Dante Allighieri et Petrarca (Pètrarque) l'admiraient et l'enviaient. Our contemporary Occitan language, is just one reflection diminished, mime if she gives a good idea of its richness of expression. Allighieri Dante and Petrarca (Petrarch) admired and envied.
    D'originas socialas variadissas Social origins variadissas
    (Des origines sociales varièes) (The social origins miscellaneous use)


    Ce groupe nombreux se rèpartit sur une durèe de huit gènèrations, du XIiéme au XIIIiéme siécle, et est originaire d'une Occitanie large , des Vallèes Occitanes d'Italie a la Catalonha (Catalogne) Espagnole. This large group is spread over a period of eight generations, the twelfth to the XIII century, and comes from a wide Occitan, Occitan Valleys of Italy has Catalonha (Catalonia) Spanish. Autre particularitè les Troubadours sont de tous les milieux sociaux. Another feature of the Troubadours are all social backgrounds. On y trouve des Rois, des Comtes, des Barons, des religieux, des commerçants, ou des artisans. There are Kings, Earls, Barons, clerics, merchants, or craftsmen. Leur idèe novatrice est de remplacer la fidèlitè au seigneur, par la fidèlitè à la Domna (la Dame), la femme idèalisèe et rÍvèe. Cela changera la Civilisation Europèenne profondèment et dècisivement. Their innovative idea is to replace the fidelity to the Lord by being faithful to the Domna (the Lady), the idealized woman and shore. This will change the European civilization deep and decisive.
    D'óbras ricas e plenas On ricas e Obras plenas
    (Des œuvres riches et pleines) (Works rich and full)


    Mais pour en Ítre leur idèe maîtresse , elle ètait loin d'Ítre la seule. But to their itle idea, it was far from the only itle. Grosso-modo, l'œuvre des Troubadours regroupe une douzaine de genres qui vont des Cançons (chansons), prècurseurs des chansons modernes , aux sirventés , sorte de chansons engagèes . Grosso modo, the work of the Troubadours includes a dozen genres ranging from Cançons (songs), the precursor of modern songs, the Sirvent, sort of protest songs. De fait, leurs poèsies concernent des domaines sociaux et personnels divers, et vont de l'Amour à la Politique . In fact, their poetries involve various social and personal areas, and range from love to the Policy.
    Malgrè une totale absence de volontè de les conserver, de la majeure partie des Occitans eux mÍmes, il nous reste plus de 1000 Tróbas (poèsies) et plus de 300 Melodiás (mèlodies), dans des manuscrits, les " Cançoniérs ", quelques uns trés sobres et d'autres trés luxueux . Despite a total lack of willingness to conserve, most of them Occitan mimes, we have over 1000 Troba (poetry) and more than 300 Melodia (melodies), in manuscripts, "Cançoniérs, very few sober and other very luxurious.
    Un de ces prècieux libres fut rèdigè pour le frére du roi LoÌs IX (dit Saint Louis) One of these precious free was written for the king's brother Statutes IX ("Saint Louis)
    Los genres mairals del Trobar Los del genera MAIRAL Trobar
    (Les principaux genres de l'Art poètique) (The main types of poetic art)
    Una enfluença oportuna e prigonda Una enfluença opportunist e prigonda
    (Une influence opportune et profonde) (A timely and profound influence)


    Les Troubadours aparaissent juste aprés la fin des invasions barbares, au moment où la triste vie des ch'teaux forts demande à Ítre amèliorèe par des distractions nouvelles . Troubadours aparaissent just after the end of the barbarian invasions, when the sad life of ch'teaux strong demand for improved itle new distractions. Les Troubadours vont donner le ton à la vie des cours du Moyen Age , et crèent le Biais de Viure (style de vie) raffinè des cours seigneuriales. Ils amenérent au Monde non-religieux , des valeurs lyriques , qui serviront de modéle à l' Europe entiére . Comme ils changeaient souvent de cour, le rayonnement de toute leur œuvre, se rèpandit à travers l'Europe , où ils furent les artisans d'une façon de penser , qui en fit une vèritable communautè de civilisation. The Troubadours will set the tone for life during the Middle Ages, and create the bias Viure (lifestyle), refined, aristocratic classes. They brought in world non-religious, lyrical values, which serve as a model to Europe. As they often switched court, the radiance of all their work, spread across Europe, where they were the architects of a way of thinking, which made it a true community of civilization.
    CiutatCity a trouvè les renseignements et beaucoup d'illustrations de ce rèsumè, dans le premier tome de "Histoire et Anthologie de la Littèrature Occitane" de Robért Lafont, (en Français), èditè aux "Presses du Languedoc" à Montpellier, que vous pouvez vous faire envoyer. CiutatCity find the information and many illustrations of this summary, in the first volume of "History and Anthology of Occitan literature" by Robert Lafont (French), published in Presses de Languedoc in Montpellier.