There are a good few posts here laying it out clearly - shaving is part of the game, happens with all networks, nobody cares you don't like it etc. Good read, answers most of the questions. Once you're done whining, what can you do to deal with it? My approach does not help with every offer; it's useful only for pay-per-lead. In real life, when you sell the lead for a business loan or a mortgage or a hiring, you keep in the loop until the client signs the deal or leaves the negotiations table. Only this way you can be sure the seller will not attribute it to his hardworking sales team and not to you, the profiteer from their efforts. Think of real-estate agents. When doing online campaigns, I try to use a page that confirms the action taken by my potential lead. No spoon feeding here, although you can PM if you have questions about it. This works like iframing the offer: you open it in a frame (meta refresh or not), but you do not stop there - a little script records if the customer hit submit or not and what the result of that effort was (successful completion of the form or not). So when you run a campaign you will have: - impressions (if driven through a banner or 1-pixel image) - click-throughs - successfully submitted forms - pending leads - confirmed leads - paid leads Work this against the cost of your campaign and check your profitability. Factoring unaccounted leads into your PPL cost can help you pinpoint sources of failure and improve the numbers. Last but not least, I am talking to open-minded AMs about it - sometimes before, sometimes after I have the figures in front of me. It can help you drop a campaign or network before wasting too much on it or negociate a better deal. It also shows you're aware of the business practice and in control of your game. This would not apply to CPA in general. Certain creditcards, loans and webhosting affiliate programs that work per lead can benefit from it though. Also referring business-to-business clients and in the property market. I hope you find it at least intriguing, if not useful. Thank you for your time.