1. This site uses cookies. By continuing to use this site, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Learn More.

Bypassing Internet Explorer's XSS Filter

Discussion in 'Black Hat SEO' started by meannn, Jun 5, 2013.

  1. meannn

    meannn Supreme Member

    Joined:
    Apr 22, 2009
    Messages:
    1,461
    Likes Received:
    1,896
    Occupation:
    Unemployed Winner
    Location:
    TR
    Introduction
    By default Internet Explorer 9 has a security system to help prevent Reflective XSS attacks.

    There are well known shortfalls of this system, most notably that it does not attempt to address DOM

    based XSS or Stored XSS. This security system is built on an arbitrary philosophy which only accounts

    for the most straight forward of reflective XSS attacks. This paper is covering three attack patterns


    that undermine Internet Explorer's ability to prevent Reflective XSS. These are general attack patterns

    that are independent of Web Application platform.


    Attack Theory
    This security system draws an arbitrary line which includes only the most straight forward

    reflective XSS attacks, leaving everyone vulnerable to slightly more complex attacks. Making a


    vulnerability more difficult to exploit doesn't keep people from getting hacked. Time and time again we

    see that attackers meet the challenge and do whats it required to exploit their target. A good example is

    ASLR and DEP, attackers don't magically stop writing memory corruption exploits because the system

    has gotten a little more difficult, they find a way around it. For instance attackers have developed ROP

    chaining to defeat ASLR. These ?catch all? security systems don't solve the root of the problem, they

    just move the problem around. This creates a ?water balloon effect?, where by the exploitable parts of

    the application bulge out the more a security system tries to clamp down. Historically XSS has been

    very easy to exploit, but it is becoming more difficult. Soon all browsers will have an XSS filter

    enabled by default, and this will put more pressure on defeating these systems.


    ?Trusted? XSS

    Before Internet Explorer's Reflective XSS filter processes an outgoing HTTP request it looks at where

    the request is originating from. The theory is that in order for an attacker to exploit a reflective XSS

    vulnerability the request must originate from a web site that the attacker controls. So by extension

    there should be no
    point in looking at requests that originate from the same domain as this would be a

    waste of resources. In addition a poorly written application might want to execute JavaScript or render

    HTML that is provided in a HTTP request. Breaking compatibility with existing software would

    undermine the usefulness of this security system.

    However IE is making an incorrect assumption, XSS can come from anywhere and there for any reflective XSS
    vulnerability can become exploitable due to this incorrect assumption. An attacker can


    trick this system using Unvalidated redirects and forwards OWASP a10. This vulnerability is also


    called Open Redirect (CWE-601). Not all methods of Open Redirect work for the purpose of creating a

    ?trusted? XSS payload. IE has taken ?location:? HTTP header redirects into consideration as well as

    meta refresh HTML tags. There are however other redirection methods which can be used in an attack.
    Now let us assume there is a straight forward XSS vulnerability in our target application found in the

    xss.php file:


    <?php

    //xss.php

    print $_GET['var'];
    ?>



    Now let us assume that there is also an OWASP a10 violation found in the redir.php file.


    <?php

    //redir.php
    print ?<script>?;
    print ?document.location='?.htmlspecialchars($_GET['redir'],ENT_QUOTES).?'?;

    print ?</script>?;
    ?>


    The Proof of Concept exploit for an application like this is as follows:


    http://victim/redir.php?redir=http%3A%2F%2Fvictim%2Fxss.php%3Fvar%3D%253Cscript

    %253Ealert%2528%2Fxss%2F%2529%253C%2Fscript%253E


    This link could originate from anywhere, including a url shorting service. The XSS payload is the

    ?var? GET variable. This part of the PoC has been double url encoded. There for an angled bracket

    ?>? becomes ?%253E?. This is encoding fools both the htmlspecialchars() on the server as well as


    IE's filter. This encoded payload is unaffected by the call to htmlspecialchars() and would behave in the

    same way with its absence. Due to RFC 1738 all ?unsafe? characters such as angle brackets must be

    urlencoded when they are present in a URL. There for any standards complaint web application

    platform will account for this RFC and urldecode all user input before it reaches the web application.

    The request to redir.php will perform a single urldecode and this file writes the payload to the page.

    The single urlencoded redirection link would have been detected as an XSS payload by Internet

    Explorer if it had originated from another domain, but it now appears to be originating from the
    same domain and is there for trusted.


    Here is a short list of JavaScript redirection methods:


    document.location=??

    location.replace(??)
    window.location.href=??
    window.location.replace(??)


    Other ?Trusted? XSS Methods
    Now lets consider the impact of a simple ?<a href=>? controlled by the attacker. This type of behavior


    is very common in web applications. Consider a Wiki where users contribute links and other content.

    Or another example is a forum where a user can set a homepage in their profile, or have links

    contained in a forum post. An application that has this feature
    cannot be protected by IE's XSS filter unless the application also has protection against clickjacking.

    Now let us consider the following link is written to a page on the victim's website found on link.php:


    <a id=my_link href=

    http://victim/xss.php?var=%3Cscript%3Ealert%28/xss/%29%3C/script%3E> link


    </a>


    In order for this attack to be carried out an victim must click on the attacker's link. To make this trap

    succeed Clickjacking can be used. Requiring a user to click in order to trigger XSS arises in other

    attack situations, such as poisoning an onclick DOM event. This attack is called ?Eventjacking?

    which is covered in section 2.2 in the ?UI Redressing? paper. Although this attack against IE's XSS


    filter does not make use of a DOM event in the victim's website, the exploitation method is analogs.

    An attacker can create an iframe on a website that he controls:




    <iframe src=http://victim/link.php#my_link/>


    This iframe is then made invisible using a SVG mask. This invisible iframe can track the user's cursor

    with javascript. Both of these techniques are covered in the ?UI Redressing? paper in sections 2.2.7.

    and 2.1.5 respectively. As a result whenever the user clicks
    anywhere on the attacker's page, the XSS


    payload will be executed within the iframe. Internet Explorer believe that the XSS payload is

    originating from the same domain, thus the XSS payload slips by unmolested by IE's XSS filter.


    XSS in DOM Events
    Converting unsafe characters to their HTML entities doesn't always protect an application from XSS.

    A problem arises when HTML encoded output is written within a DOM event. All browsers will first

    perform an HTML decode prior to evaluating the DOM event. This attack pattern is well known, and

    is documented in ?Its a DOM event?.

    This is not to be confused with DOM based XSS, which is a


    vulnerability caused by insecure JavaScript. The irony is that the programmer is trying to prevent XSS

    by using HTML entities on user input to the server, when in fact this variant of XSS now becomes

    exploitable despite Internet Explorer's XSS filter.
    Let us consider this code which is vulnerable to XSS because of a DOM event. Note that the call to

    htmlspecialchars
    is required
    for this attack to bypass IE's filter:


    <?php

    //event.php
    print "<img src=
    https://sitewat.ch/UserInterface/images/Sitewatch_logo.png
    onload=\"v='".htmlspecialchars($_GET['event'],ENT_QUOTES)."'; \">";
    ?>


    This Proof of Concept behaves as if IE's XSS filter does not exist:


    http://victim/event.php?event=%27%2balert%281%29%2b%27


    UTF-7 encoded XSS
    UTF-7 encoded XSS has a number of interesting properties. UTF-7 encoded XSS is still executable

    despite HTML Entity encoding because it does not use angle brackets. However, UTF-7 was


    created for SMTP and Internet Explorer is one of the few browsers that supports the UTF-7 character

    set. Internet Explorer requires that UTF-7 be declared as the character set. In older versions of Internet


    Explorer the content-type was ?sniffed? for, and if a UTF-7 sequence appeared within the first 1400

    bytes it would make the page UTF-7. However, this issue has been fixed.

    Here is an example of this vulnerability. Note that the call to htmlspecialchars is not required, it just

    demonstrates a problem with UTF-7 encoding.


    <?php

    //utf7.php
    session_start();
    header('Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-7');
    print(htmlspecialchars($_GET['utf7']));
    ?>


    Mods can move this to VIP if needed.